The Cultural Intelligence Center will always remain research-focused. We invite you to explore the peer-reviewed research that is the basis for all of our products and services.
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Assessing Cross-Cultural Competence: A Review of Available Tests
Reviews construct validity evidence for ten cultural competence scales and observes that many scales lack validity and have unstable factor structures. In contrast, concludes that there is “considerable evidence for the concurrent and predictive ecological validity” of CQ with samples from multiple cultures.Download
A bi-factor theory of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence: Meta-analysis and theoretical extensions
Applying meta-analytic techniques, harnesses the recent explosion of research on the four-factor model of CQ to address three fundamental, yet unresolved theoretical issues.Download
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) in MBA Curricula
The roles of social complexity belief and perceived contact characteristics in cultural intelligence development among individuals receiving contact-based training
Uses a pre- post- design with contact-based cross-cultural training and shows social complexity beliefs positively predict development of CQ. Also shows that perceptions of disconfirmation explain why social complexity beliefs influence development of CQ.
Global Leadership Success through Emotional and Cultural Intelligences
Describes the growing need for leaders with emotional and cultural intelligence. Advocates assessment, education, and experiential activities to help leaders develop these two types of intelligence.
Handbook of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement and Applications
With contributions from scholars around the world, this book provides the most comprehensive review of cultural intelligence research to date.Purchase
The Role of Core Self-Evaluation, Ethnocentrism, and Cultural Intelligence in Study Abroad Success
Intercultural challenges in managing workplace conflict – A call for research
Advances a theoretical propositions for how different cultural logics of self-worth (based on dignity, honor, and face cultures) influence three key characteristics of conflict management: direct versus indirect confrontation, expression of negative emotions, and timing / actions of third party interveners. Emphasizes situations when managers of multicultural teams should intervene versus not intervene.
Cultural Intelligence: Understanding Behaviors that Serve People’s Goals
Compares and contrasts two conceptualizations of CQ and views them as complementary.
Cultural Sensitivity or Cultural Stereotyping? Positive and Negative Effects of a Cultural Psychology Class
Developing Cultural Intelligence: Assessing the Effect of the Ecotonos Cultural Simulation Game for International Business Students
Global Management Competencies: A Theoretical Foundation
Develops an integrative model of global management competencies and notes that the CQ model uniquely contributes to the metacognitive and behavioral components of the integrative model.
How to Assess Global Management Competencies: An Investigation of Existing Instruments
Compares 23 instruments of global management competency with the integrative model of Global Management GMC and argues that the CQ model has a “central position” in the GMC model because it includes most of the components of the GMC model.
CQ at Work and the Impact of Intercultural Training: An Empirical Test Among Foreign Laborers
Assessing the Effects of Cultural Intelligence on Team Knowledge Sharing from a Socio-Cognitive Perspective
Shows that metacognitive, cognitive, and motivational CQ are positively related to knowledge sharing in teams.
Not just how much you know: Interactional effect of cultural knowledge and metacognition on creativity in a global context
Integrates research on creative cognition and cultural intelligence. Shows an upside down U shaped relationship between cultural knowledge and creativity for those with low metacognition. Too much cultural knowledge can detract from creativity.
What Leads to Cultural Intelligence?
Describes relationships between various types of international experience and cultural intelligence.
The Relationships Among Social Intelligence, Emotional Intelligence and Cultural Intelligence
Describes CQ and emotional intelligence as components of social intelligence. Argues that CQ and emotional intelligence overlap – but also have distinct characteristics. Notes the value of both CQ and EQ.
An Empirical Analysis of Three Intelligences
Cross-Cultural Competence and Power-Based Rules: A Native American Case Study
Cultural Intelligence and the Global Mindset
Compares cultural intelligence with global mindset and explores possible ways of integrating elements from the two approaches
Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures
Draws on Sternberg’s framework of multiple loci of intelligence to identify and define three dimensions of CQ: cognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioral CQ. Separate chapters address each factor.Purchase
CQ: Developing Cultural Intelligence at Work
The first book to focus on practical application of CQ at work.Purchase
Senior Expatriate Leadership’s Effects on Innovation and the Role of Cultural Intelligence
The Impact of International Experience on Cultural Intelligence: An Application of Contact Theory in a Structured Short-Term Programme
Hype or hope? A new look at the research on cultural intelligence
Provides a qualitative review of 142 empirical papers on CQ (through March 2018) and summarizes the overall findings which support validity of the CQS measure, confirm the four-factor structure, and differentiate CQ from IQ and EQ and personality. Also summarizes research on antecedents, consequences, and development of CQ. Concludes by describing recommendations for future research.
Cross-Cultural Training Effects on Cultural Essentialism Beliefs and Cultural Intelligence
The Role of Cultural Intelligence for the Emergence of Negotiated Culture in IT Offshore Outsourcing Projects
Leader Cultural Intelligence in Context: Testing the Moderating Effects of Team Cultural Diversity on Leader and Team Performance
Examining Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Negotiation Effectiveness
Nordic Expatriates in the US: The Relationship between Cultural Intelligence and Adjustment
Cultural Intelligence: Is Such a Capacity Credible?
Discusses three alternative perspectives to the description and measurement of CQ.
Study abroad programs: Individual motivations, cultural intelligence, and the mediating role of cultural boundary spanning
Draws on self-determination theory to posit contrasting effects of different motives for participating in study abroad, with effects on cultural boundary spanning and cultural intelligence. Empirical results from over 900 study abroad students demonstrate that intrinsic and self-determined extrinsic motives positively predicted cultural boundary spanning and social motives negative predicted cultural boundary spanning while abroad. Results also showed positive relationships between cultural boundary spanning and the four CQ capabilities.
Cultural Intelligence, Personality, and Cross-Cultural Adjustment: A Study of Expatriates in Japan
Contextualizing Cultural Intelligence: The Case of Global Managers
Assessing the Cultural Intelligence and Task Performance Equation: Mediating Role of Cultural Adjustment
The Effects of Cultural Intelligence on Expatriate Performance: The Moderating Effects of International Experience
Does your Intelligence Help to Survive in a Foreign Jungle? The Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence on Cross-Cultural Adjustment
Shows discriminant validity of CQ and emotional intelligence. Aggregate emotional intelligence correlates with the four CQ factors. CQ and emotional intelligence interact to predict cross-cultural adjustment. Adjustment is highest when CQ and emotional intelligence are both high
Customs of the World: Using Cultural Intelligence To Adapt, Wherever You Are
Twenty-four lectures that describe and illustrate the cultural values and customs of the ten largest cultural clusters in the world.Purchase
Expand Your Borders: Discover Ten Cultural Clusters
This book describes and provides vivid examples of the cultural values of the ten largest cultural clusters in the world. The book is an excellent source of information for improving your CQ Knowledge—your understanding of key cultural similarities and differences.Purchase
Leading with Cultural Intelligence: The New Secret to Success
This book applies cultural intelligence research specifically to leaders and leadership. It describes and provides examples of the four step process for improving your CQ.Purchase
Driven by Difference: How Great Companies Fuel Innovation through Diversity
This book draws upon the latest research on cultural intelligence to describe how to leverage the power of cultural differences to drive innovation. Based on extensive research and filled with examples and case studies from around the world, learn how to create a strategy for culturally intelligent innovation.Purchase
Individual Characteristics as Predictors of Cultural Intelligence Development: The Relevance of Self-Efficacy
A Process-Based Explanation of the Psychic Distance Paradox: Evidence from Global Virtual Teams
The Role of Cultural Intelligence Marketing and Export Performance
Cultural Intelligence as a Predictor of Expatriate Adjustment and Performance in Malaysia
The Neglected Role of Cultural Intelligence in Recent Immigrant Newcomers’ Socialization
Notes the value of CQ for research on immigrants and develops the argument that CQ moderates the effect of organizational diversity on the adjustment strategies used by immigrants.
Previous International Experience, Cross-Cultural Training, and Expatriates’ Cross-Cultural Adjustment: Effects of Cultural Intelligence and Goal Orientation
Emotional Intelligence Correlates of the Four-Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence
Past Experience, Cultural Intelligence, and Satisfaction with International Business Studies
Metacognition fosters cultural learning: Evidence from individual differences and situational prompts
Shows metacognition facilitates learning new cultural norms because it triggers error monitoring and updating of information.
Cultural Intelligence and the Multinational Team Experience: Does the Experience of Working in a Multinational Team Improve Cultural Intelligence?
Culture and Intelligence: Old Constructs, New Frontiers
Describes the benefits of integrating research on cultural and intelligence.
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) in Virtual, Cross-Cultural Interactions: Generalizability of Measure and Links to Personality Dimensions and Task Performance
Shows positive relationships between personality (openness to experience and extraversion) and the four CQ factors in a virtual context.
Commitment to the Study of International Business and Cultural Intelligence: A Multilevel Model
Examining the Influence of Cross-Cultural Training on Cultural Intelligence and Specific Self-Efficacy
The Culturally Intelligent Brain: From Detecting to Bridging Cultural Differences
Draws on cultural neuroscience research to describe CQ as a capability that facilitates high quality intercultural interactions instead of just detecting or understanding cultural differences.
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) in Action: The Effects of Personality and International Assignment on the Development of CQ
Measuring Cultural Intelligence in the Turkish Context
Cultural Intelligence and Successful Intelligence
Argues that intelligence must be grounded in a particular context or setting and emphasizes the importance of successful intelligence as based on effectiveness in a specific context.
Motivational Cultural Intelligence: Realistic Job Preview, Realistic Living Conditions Preview, and Cross-Cultural Adjustment
Shows that motivational CQ predicts intenational adjustment of global professionals, above and beyond the effects of demographic characteristics, realistic previews, and prior international experience.
Cultural Intelligence: Domain and Assessment
Domain and Development of Cultural Intelligence: The Importance of Mindfulness
Describes mindfulness as a key factor that links knowledge with behavioral capabilities.
Cultural Intelligence: A Theory-Based, Short Form Measure
Cultural Intelligence in Organizations
Emphasizes the importance of suspending judgment and accounting for situation and cultural differences as well as individual differences when interacting in novel settings.
Developing Cultural Intelligence for Global Leadership through Mindfulness
Cultural Intelligence: An Essential Capability for Individuals in Contemporary Organizations
Discusses the conceptualization of cultural intelligence and summarizes empirical research on the construct.
A Self-Assessment of Your CQ
Cultural Intelligence: Measurement and Scale Development
Defines the four dimensions of CQ, summarizes research results, notes practical implications of the research, and offers recommendations for future research on CQ.
The Development of the Global Manager: An Empirical Study on the Role of Academic International Sojourns
Minimizing cross-cultural maladaptation: How minority status facilitates change in international acculturation
Positions CQ as a personal resource that strengthens the relationship between prior minority experience in their home country and cross-cultural adjustment as international college students studying in the U.S.. Shows that prior minority experience (T1) facilitated student adjustment (T2) and this positive effect was stronger for those with high CQ.
Cultural Intelligence Trajectories in New International Students: Implications for the Development of Cross-Cultural Competence
The Convergent, Discriminant, and Incremental Validity of Scores on a Self-Report Measure of Cultural Intelligence
Short-Term Cross-Cultural Study Tours: Impact on Cultural Intelligence
The Impact of Expatriate Supporting Practices and Cultural Intelligence on Cross-Cultural Adjustment and Performance of Expatriates in Singapore
Unlocking expatriates’ job creativity: The role of cultural learning, and metacognitive and motivational cultural intelligence
Shows metacognitive CQ and motivational CQ predict cultural learning which, in turn, predicts cross-cultural job creativity, especially for expatriates who work in a domain that is not vastly different from home.
The Culturally Intelligent Team: The Impact of Team Cultural Intelligence and Cultural Heterogeneity on Team Shared Values
Demonstrates metacognitive and behavioral CQ of team members promotes shared team values in early stages of multicultural team development. Shows CQ contributes to team norming in culturally-diverse teams, but makes no difference in homogeneous teams.
Evaluating an Intensive Program to Increase Cultural Intelligence: A Quasi-Experimental Design
Uses a rigorous pre- post- design to compare changes in CQ scores for those in an experimental group (involving a cultural learning course and study abroad) with those in a control group. Results demonstrated significant increases in Cognitive CQ, Metacognitive CQ, and Behavioral CQ for those in the experimental group compared to the control group. Motivational CQ did not change significantly.
Predicting CQ development in the context of experiential cross-cultural training: The role of social dominance orientation and the propensity to change stereotypes
Examines the relationships of social dominance orientation and changes in stereotypes with development of CQ based on experiential cross-cultural training and intercultural contact. Pre- Post- intervention analysis shows social dominance orientation negatively predicts changes in stereotypes which, in turn, had negative effects on development of CQ.
Cultural Intelligence and Offshore Outsourcing Success: A Framework of Firm-Level Intercultural Capability
Develops a firm-level conceptualization of CQ based on the resource-based view of the firm. Identifies three firm-level resources (managerial CQ, competitive CQ, and structural CQ) as predictors of effective international business.
Personality Correlates of the Four Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence
Demonstrates that the Big Five personality trait of openness to experience predicts all four CQ capabilities. Extraversion predicts cognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioral CQ. Conscientiousness predicts metacognitive CQ. Agreeableness and emotional stability predict behavioral CQ.Download
Cultural Intelligence: Origins, Conceptualization, Evolution and Methodological Diversity
Describes the development of CQ research, including the initial focus on main effects at the individual level to more recent research on more complex multilevel models. Describes the benefits of different approaches for measuring CQ, such as self-report, informant-report (observer), and performance-based.Download
Provides a comprehensive review of CQ, including research on antecedents, correlates, consequences, and moderators. Includes recommendations for future research on the sub-factors of the four CQ dimensions, expanding our understanding of the CQ nomological network, and using a variety of measurement approaches for assessing CQ.Download
Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation, and Task Performance
Provides rigorous construct validity evidence for the 20-item, four factor, cultural intelligence scale (CQS). The only peer-reviewed, published scale with statistical evidence of predictive validity based on multiple sources of data. Demonstrates motivational CQ and behavioral CQ predict cultural adaptation (controlling for general mental ability, Big Five personality traits, cross-cultural experience, and demographics). Also demonstrate positive relationships for motivational CQ and behavioral CQ with supervisor assessment of cultural adaptation. Finally, shows positive relationships for metacognitive CQ and behavioral CQ with task performance (rated by supervisors and peers), above and beyond the effects of control variables, including prior cross-cultural experience.Download
Hiding behind a mask? Cultural intelligence, knowledge hiding, and individual and team creativity
Drawing on social exchange theory and social categorization theory, field study data show that cultural intelligence weakens the negative relationship between knowledge hiding and individual creativity. In addition, results of a quasi-experimental study show that knowledge hiding is negatively related to team creativity.
Enhancing cultural intelligence: The roles of implicit culture beliefs and adjustment
Examines the relationship between international experience and CQ based on the contact hypothesis in a three-wave field study of university students enrolled in an international exchange program with worldwide partners. Demonstrates that cross-cultural adjustment predicts all four CQ capabilities over time. In addition, latent change score analysis showed a significant and positive effect of adjustment on increases in CQ.
When Does Cross-Cultural Motivation Enhance Expatriate Effectiveness? A Multilevel Investigation of the Moderating Roles of Subsidiary Support and Cultural Distance
Demonstrates that expatriate work adjustment links motivational CQ with task performance. Two two contextual factors (cultural distance and subsidiary support) moderate this mediated relationship.
Collaborating Across Cultures: Cultural Metacognition and Affect-Based Trust in Creative Collaboration
Shows metacognitive CQ predicts idea sharing and creative collaboration with culturally diverse partners. Affect-based trust mediates the effect of metacognitive CQ on creative collaboration. In contrast, metacognitive CQ does not predict affect-based trust or new idea sharing with homogeneous partners
The Elusive Cultural Chameleon: Cultural Intelligence as a New Approach to Intercultural Training for the Global Manager
Describes the importance of cultural intelligence training that emphasizes metacognitive, motivational, and behavioral interventions as more important than traditional approaches that focus primarily on cognitive understanding of cultural values.
Describes vivid examples of three sources of cultural intelligence. Describes six steps for enhancing your cultural intelligence applied to a two and a half day training program.
Can Business Schools Make Students Culturally Competent? Effects of Cross-Cultural Management Courses on Cultural Intelligence
Reports stronger effects of courses in cross-cultural management on metacognitive and cognitive CQ (than on motivational and behavioral CQ).
Going Global: Developing Management Students’ Cultural Intelligence and Global Identity in Culturally Diverse Virtual Teams
Demonstrates increases in overall CQ after 4-week, on-line virtual multicultural team project, with ongoing effects 6 months after the project. Show moderating role for team trust on development of CQ for moderate to high trust.
Thinking Intelligently about Cultural Intelligence: The Road Ahead
Reviews the conceptual and empirical research on CQ and provides recommendations for future research.
The Culturally Intelligent Negotiator: The Impact of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) on Negotiation Sequences and Outcomes
Experimental results demonstrated higher quality negotiation outcomes for intercultural dyads with high motivational. Also highlights the importace of minimum CQ, suggesting that both parties need motivational CQ for negotiation effectiveness.
Cultural Intelligence in Global Teams: A Fusion Model of Collaboration
Presents a fusion model that positions group collaboration as the basis of team CQ. Highlights the importance of multiple perspectives for decision-making as a basis for making creative and realistic decisions.
Cultural Intelligence and International Leadership Potential: The Importance of Contact for Members of the Majority
Demonstrates similar relationships for prior intercultural contact and CQ based on self-report and observer-report measures of CQ. CQ mediates the link between prior intercultural contact and international leadership potential, but only for those with majority status and not those with minority status.Download
Provides an integrative review of different intercultural competency models. Notes that CQ focuses on intercultural capabilities, whereas many other models focus on intercultural traits, attitudes or and/or worldviews. Based on existing research, concludes that CQ is a stronger predictor of intercultural effectiveness.
When Do Global Leaders Learn Best to Develop Cultural Intelligence? An Investigation of the Moderating Role of Experiential Learning Style
Reports a moderating effect of divergent learning style—which emphasizes concrete experience and reflective observation—that strengthens the positive relationship between length of overseas experience and CQ for international executives and graduate business students. Assimilative, convergent, and accommodative learning styles, however, showed no effects.
Cultural Intelligence: The Essential Intelligence for the 21st Century
Describes the practical application of CQ in organizational contexts. Chapters cover making the business case for CQ, the influence of culture and cultural differences in work organizations, and recommendations for building culturally intelligent teams and organizations.Download
Cross-Cultural Code-Switching: The Psychological Challenges of Adapting Behavior in Foreign Cultural Interactions
Describes the psychological processes and emotional challenges of enacting flexible behavior (such as behavioral CQ). Notes that CQ and emotional intelligence are helpful in intercultural interactions.
Identifying and Training Adaptive Cross-Cultural Management Skills: The Crucial Role of Cultural Metacognition
Shows that cultural perspective taking mediates the relationship between metacognitive CQ and cooperation in international MBA teams. Metacognitive CQ predicts cooperation in international teams, as mediated by cultural perspective taking.
Speaking out and speaking up in multicultural settings: A two-study examination of cultural intelligence and voice behavior.
Demonstrates that cultural intelligence buffers the negative relationship between cultural distance and voice behavior. Results also show this buffering effect applies to speaking up voice directed at supervisors as well as to speaking out voice directed at peers.Download
Beyond International Experience: The Strategic Role of Cultural Intelligence for Executive Selection in International Human Resource Management
Proposes a multilevel model where employee CQ is facilitated when organizations have ‘global culture capital’ and value routines that foster global leadership development based on situated learning.Download
From Experience to Experiential Learning: Cultural Intelligence as a Learning Capability for Global Leader Development
Draws on experiential learning theory to develop a conceptual model that positions CQ as a boundary condition (a moderator) that determines when international assignments predict gains in global leadership.Download
Developing Global Leaders: The Role of International Experience and Cultural Intelligence
Develops a model based on experiential learning theory that emphasizes cultural intelligence as the key factor that determines the extent to which global leaders learn from their international experiences.Download
Cultural Intelligence: A Review, Reflections, and Recommendations for Future Research
Provides a historical overview of the research program used to develop the CQ construct, refine the measurement of CQ, and test increasingly complex empirical relationships. Describes the rewards and challenges of conducting CQ research and offers future research recommendations.Download
Applying Cultural Intelligence to Religious Symbols in Multinationals
Develops a conceptual model depicting ways that workplace norms for display of religious symbols negatively predict motivational CQ and how this negative effect can be weakened by organizational support for religious plurality.
The Influence of Motivational Cultural Intelligence on Cultural Effectiveness based on Study Abroad: The Moderating Role of Participant’s Cultural Identity
Shows that T1 motivational CQ predicts increases in T2 psychological well-being in intercultural settings based on study abroad. Cultural identity moderates the effect of motivational CQ on peer-rated suitability for overseas work. Suitability is lowest for individuals with low motivational CQ and strong cultural identity.Download
Developing Responsible Global Leaders Through International Service-Learning Programs: The Ulysses Experience
Reports enhanced metacognitive and cognitive CQ after 2 years, based on content analysis of post-program interviews of those who participated in an 8-week international service learning program.
Expatriate career intentions: Links to career adaptability and cultural intelligence
Posits that self-initiated expatriation is an adaptive vocational behavior driven by self-regulation processes. Demonstrates that cultural intelligence strengthens the relationship between career adaptability and overseas career intentions.
Exploring the Impact of Cross-Cultural Management Education on Cultural Intelligence, Student Satisfaction, and Commitment
Shows pre- post- increases in CQ for students in a cross-cultural management course compared to a control group. CQ also predicts commitment to and satisfaction with the course.
Developing Cultural Intelligence.
Provides a critical and integrative review of ways to enhance CQ through training and development. Studies are organized based on their research design and the type of intervention (training vs. intercultural experience).Download
The Effects of Cultural Intelligence on Interpersonal Trust in Multi-Cultural Teams
Applies the Social Relations Model to show that CQ predicts trust in culturally-dissimilar dyads in multicultural teams, but CQ does not predict trust in culturally similar dyads.Download
Putting Judging Situations into Situational Judgment Tests: Evidence from Intercultural Multimedia SJTs
Describes development and validation of a video-based intercultural situational judgment test (iSJT) and a performance-based assessment of CQ. Demonstrates the value of the iSJT as well as the self-report version of the CQS and concludes the two approaches are complementary. The performance-based measure of CQ predicts task performance and interpersonal OCB in multicultural teams.Download
Beyond General Intelligence (IQ) and Emotional Intelligence (EQ): The Role of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) on Cross-Border Leadership Effectiveness in a Globalized World
Demonstrates positive relationships of general intelligence (IQ) with both domestic and cross-border leadership effectiveness using multisource field study data. Also shows that emotional intelligence (EQ) more strongly predicts domestic leadership effectiveness and CQ more strongly predicts cross-border leadership effectiveness.Download
From Contact to Development in Experiential Cultural Intelligence Education: The Mediating Influence of Expectancy Disconfirmation
Describes a 7-stage intervention with an unfamiliar cultural group (based on optimal contact theory and experiential learning) Shows expectancy disconfirmation and perceptions of optimal cross-cultural conflict are positively related to development of the four CQ factors.
Cultural Contingencies of Mediation: Effectiveness of Mediator Styles in Intercultural Disputes
Shows that manipulative mediation tactics facilitate higher quality outcomes for intercultural dyads with lower motivational CQ, but manipulative tactics detract from outcomes for dyads with higher motivational CQ (in an experimental study).
Antecedents and Consequences of Cultural Intelligence Among Short-Term Business Travelers
Shows multicultural experience is important for the CQ of short-term business travelers who have a low need for control. Those with a high need for control have higher CQ than those with low need for control. Metacognitive, motivational, and behavioral CQ negatively predicted burnout.
Development and Validation of the CQS: The Cultural Intelligence Scale
Provides additional validity evidence for the 20-item CQS based on an observer version of the CQS. Demonstrates convergent validity for the self and observer measures. Introduces a 9-item Mini-CQS for studies that focus on more distal research relationships. Demonstrate significant increases in cognitive CQ and behavioral CQ over four months based on college course materials on cultural values (cognitive) and experiential role-play exercises (behavioral).Download
Cultural Intelligence: A Pathway for Leading in a Rapidly Globalizing World
Provides a practical overview of the four-factor model of CQ and positions the four factors as four steps that can be used to enhance overall cultural intelligence.Download
Provides summary descriptions and citations for published research on cultural intelligence. Resources are organized into the following categories: general overviews, definition and conceptualization, conceptual distinctiveness of CQ, measurement of CQ, unique relevance of CQ to intercultural contexts, antecedents of CQ, consequences of CQ, models of CQ, critiques of CQ, developing CQ, and publications for practitioners.Download
Sub-Dimensions of the Four Factor Model of Cultural Intelligence: Expanding the Conceptualization and Measurement of Cultural Intelligence (CQ)
Expands the conceptualization of CQ by delineating sub-dimensions for each of the four CQ capabilities. Describes psychometric properties of the scale, including support for the second-order model of the 37-item Expanded Cultural Intelligence Scale (E-CQS).Download
Personality, Cultural Intelligence and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Test of Mediation Hypothesis
Demonstrates that motivational CQ links the flexibility dimension of multicultural personality (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, flexibility, social initiative, and emotional stability) with intercultural adjustment.