Articles & Books

Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (Eds.) (2008). Handbook of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement and Applications. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

With contributions from scholars around the world, this book provides the most comprehensive review of cultural intelligence research to date.


Livermore, D. (2016). Driven by Difference: How Great Companies Fuel Innovation through Diversity. New York: AMACOM.

This book draws upon the latest research on cultural intelligence to describe how to leverage the power of cultural differences to drive innovation. Based on extensive research and filled with examples and case studies from around the world, learn how to create a strategy for culturally intelligent innovation.


Livermore, D. (2015). Leading with Cultural Intelligence: The New Secret to Success. 2nd Ed. New York: AMACOM.

This book applies cultural intelligence research specifically to leaders and leadership. It describes and provides examples of the four step process for improving your CQ.


Livermore, D., & Van Dyne, L. (2015). Cultural Intelligence: The Essential Intelligence for the 21st CenturySHRM Foundation Effective Practice Guideline Series. Alexandria, Virginia: SHRM.

Describes the practical application of CQ in organizational contexts. Chapters cover making the business case for CQ, the influence of culture and cultural differences in work organizations, and recommendations for building culturally intelligent teams and organizations.

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Livermore, D. (2013). Expand Your Borders: Discover Ten Cultural Clusters. Holt, Michigan: Cultural Intelligence Center.

This book describes and provides vivid examples of the cultural values of the ten largest cultural clusters in the world. The book is an excellent source of information for improving your CQ Knowledge—your understanding of key cultural similarities and differences.


Livermore, D. (2013). Customs of the World: Using Cultural Intelligence To Adapt, Wherever You Are. The Teaching Company: Great Courses.

Twenty-four lectures that describe and illustrate the cultural values and customs of the ten largest cultural clusters in the world.


Earley, P.C. & Mosakowski, E. (2004). Cultural IntelligenceHarvard Business Review, 82: 139-146.

Describes vivid examples of three sources of cultural intelligence. Describes six steps for enhancing your cultural intelligence applied to a two and a half day training program.

Alon, I. & Higgins, J. M. (2005). Global Leadership Success through Emotional and Cultural Intelligences. Business Horizons, 48: 501-512.

Describes the growing need for leaders with emotional and cultural intelligence. Advocates assessment, education, and experiential activities to help leaders develop these two types of intelligence.

Crowne, K. A. (2008). What Leads to Cultural Intelligence? Business Horizons, 51: 391-399.

Describes relationships between various types of international experience and cultural intelligence.

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Livermore, D. (2010). Cultural Intelligence: A Pathway for Leading in a Rapidly Globalizing World. In K.M. Hannum. B. McFeeters, & L. Booysen (Eds.), Leadership Across Differences (pp. 131-138). San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer.

Provides a practical overview of the four-factor model of CQ and positions the four factors as four steps that can be used to enhance overall cultural intelligence.

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