Articles & Books

Thomas Rockstuhl & Van Dyne, L. (2018). A bi-factor theory of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence: Meta-analysis and theoretical extensions. In Francesca Gina (Ed.), Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 148 (2018)  124-144. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Elsevier Press.

Applying meta-analytic techniques, we harness the recent explosion of research on the four-factor model of CQ to address three fundamental, yet unresolved theoretical issues.

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Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Tan, M.-L. (2017). Cultural Intelligence. Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press.

Provides summary descriptions and citations for published research on cultural intelligence. Resources are organized into the following categories: general overviews, definition and conceptualization, conceptual distinctiveness of CQ, measurement of CQ, unique relevance of CQ to intercultural contexts, antecedents of CQ, consequences of CQ, models of CQ, critiques of CQ, developing CQ, and publications for practitioners.

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Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (Eds.) (2008). Handbook of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement and Applications. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

With contributions from scholars around the world, this book provides the most comprehensive review of cultural intelligence research to date.


Earley, P.C., & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural Intelligence: Individual Interactions Across Cultures. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.

Draws on Sternberg’s framework of multiple loci of intelligence to identify and define three dimensions of CQ: cognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioral CQ.  Separate chapters address each factor.


Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (2008). Conceptualization of Cultural Intelligence: Definition, Distinctiveness, and Nomological Network. In S. Ang, & L. Van Dyne, (Eds.) Handbook of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement and Applications (pp. 3-15). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Defines CQ as an aggregate multi-dimensional construct composed of four dimensions: metacognitive CQ, cognitive CQ, motivational CQ, and behavioral CQ. Differentiates CQ conceptually from personality, other types of intelligence, and other types of intercultural competency.

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Ng, K.Y., Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (2009). From Experience to Experiential Learning: Cultural Intelligence as a Learning Capability for Global Leader Development. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 8: 511-526.

Draws on experiential learning theory to develop a conceptual model that positions CQ as a boundary condition (a moderator) that determines when international assignments predict gains in global leadership.

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Leung, K., Ang, S., & Tan, M.L. (2014). Intercultural Competence. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 1: 489-519.

Provides an integrative review of different intercultural competency models. Notes that CQ focuses on intercultural capabilities, whereas many other models focus on intercultural traits, attitudes or and/or worldviews. Based on existing research, concludes that CQ is a stronger predictor of intercultural effectiveness.

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Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H.C. (2013). Assessing Cross-Cultural Competence: A Review of Available TestsJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44:849-873.

Reviews construct validity evidence for ten cultural competence scales and observes that many scales lack validity and have unstable factor structures. In contrast, concludes that there is “considerable evidence for the concurrent and predictive ecological validity” of CQ with samples from multiple cultures.

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Earley, P. C., & Peterson, R. S. (2004). The Elusive Cultural Chameleon: Cultural Intelligence as a New Approach to Intercultural Training for the Global Manager. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 3: 100-115.

Describes the importance of cultural intelligence training that emphasizes metacognitive,  motivational, and behavioral interventions as more important than traditional approaches that focus primarily on cognitive understanding of cultural values.

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Van Dyne, L., & Ang, S. (2005). Cultural Intelligence: An Essential Capability for Individuals in Contemporary Organizations. Globaledge: Featured Insight.

Discusses the conceptualization of cultural intelligence and summarizes empirical research on the construct.

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