Articles & Books

Thomas Rockstuhl & Van Dyne, L. (2018). A bi-factor theory of the four-factor model of cultural intelligence: Meta-analysis and theoretical extensions. In Francesca Gina (Ed.), Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 148 (2018)  124-144. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Elsevier Press.

Applying meta-analytic techniques, we harness the recent explosion of research on the four-factor model of CQ to address three fundamental, yet unresolved theoretical issues.

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Raver, J.L. & Van Dyne, L. (2018). Developing Cultural Intelligence. In K.G. Brown (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Workplace Training and Employee Development (407-440). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

The chapter provides a critical and integrative review of ways to enhance CQ through training and development. Studies are organized based on their research design and the type of intervention (training vs. intercultural experience).

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Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Tan, M.-L. (2017). Cultural Intelligence. Oxford Bibliographies. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press.

Provides summary descriptions and citations for published research on cultural intelligence. Resources are organized into the following categories: general overviews, definition and conceptualization, conceptual distinctiveness of CQ, measurement of CQ, unique relevance of CQ to intercultural contexts, antecedents of CQ, consequences of CQ, models of CQ, critiques of CQ, developing CQ, and publications for practitioners.

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Ang, S., & Van Dyne, L. (Eds.) (2008). Handbook of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement and Applications. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

With contributions from scholars around the world, this book provides the most comprehensive review of cultural intelligence research to date.


Livermore, D. (2016). Driven by Difference: How Great Companies Fuel Innovation through Diversity. New York: AMACOM.

This book draws upon the latest research on cultural intelligence to describe how to leverage the power of cultural differences to drive innovation. Based on extensive research and filled with examples and case studies from around the world, learn how to create a strategy for culturally intelligent innovation.


Livermore, D. (2015). Leading with Cultural Intelligence: The New Secret to Success. 2nd Ed. New York: AMACOM.

This book applies cultural intelligence research specifically to leaders and leadership. It describes and provides examples of the four step process for improving your CQ.


Livermore, D., & Van Dyne, L. (2015). Cultural Intelligence: The Essential Intelligence for the 21st CenturySHRM Foundation Effective Practice Guideline Series. Alexandria, Virginia: SHRM.

Describes the practical application of CQ in organizational contexts. Chapters cover making the business case for CQ, the influence of culture and cultural differences in work organizations, and recommendations for building culturally intelligent teams and organizations.

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Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K-Y., Templer, K.J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N.A. (2007). Cultural Intelligence: Its Measurement and Effects on Cultural Judgment and Decision Making, Cultural Adaptation, and Task Performance. Management and Organization Review, 3: 335-371.

Provides rigorous construct validity evidence for the 20-item, four factor, cultural intelligence scale (CQS). The only peer-reviewed, published scale with statistical evidence of predictive validity based on multiple sources of data. Demonstrates motivational CQ and behavioral CQ predict cultural adaptation (controlling for general mental ability, Big Five personality traits, cross-cultural experience, and demographics). Also demonstrate positive relationships for motivational CQ and behavioral CQ with supervisor assessment of cultural adaptation. Finally, shows positive relationships for metacognitive CQ and behavioral CQ with task performance (rated by supervisors and peers), above and beyond the effects of control variables, including prior cross-cultural experience.

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Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Koh, C. (2008). Development and Validation of the CQS: The Cultural Intelligence Scale. In S. Ang, & L. Van Dyne, L. (Eds.), Handbook of Cultural Intelligence: Theory, Measurement and Applications (pp. 16-38). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.

Provides additional validity evidence for the 20-item CQS based on an observer version of the CQS. Demonstrates convergent validity for the self and observer measures. Introduces a 9-item Mini-CQS for studies that focus on more distal research relationships. Demonstrate significant increases in cognitive CQ and behavioral CQ over four months based on college course materials on cultural values (cognitive) and experiential role-play exercises (behavioral).

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Imai, L. & Gelfand, M.J. (2010). The Culturally Intelligent Negotiator: The Impact of Cultural Intelligence (CQ) on Negotiation Sequences and Outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 112: 83–98.

Experimental results demonstrated higher quality negotiation outcomes for intercultural dyads with high motivational. Also highlights the importace of minimum CQ, suggesting that both parties need motivational CQ for negotiation effectiveness.

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